ï»¿>>BRIAN O’SHAUGHNESSY: Good morning,
everybody. My name is Brian O’Shaughnessy, I’m on the
Google Corporate Communications Team, here in Mountain View.
First of all, I want to thank you all for taking the time to come down and visit us
after a long weekend. I trust you all had a relaxing Labor Day,
as did we. For those of you who think it was a brilliant
marketing communications strategy to release the comic book, it’s O’S-h-a-u-g–
And for those of you who think it was a flub, it was S-u-n-d-a-r–who is Sundar’s name.
So thank you again for coming down, and we’re going to do a demo today in advance of the
launch. The Google Chrome product will be available
live at noon today. And Sundar will introduce you not only to
the product, but to the team behind the product. So with that, I’d like to introduce Sundar
Pichai, Vice President Product Management at Google.
[pause]>>SUNDAR PICHAI: Thanks, everyone.
So thank you for coming. It’s been an interesting 24 hours, to say
the least. The last thing I expected to spend my Labor
Day on was tracking down how shipping works at Google, how we ship stuff and so on.
So hope you all had a chance to skim through the comic.
Just wanted to give you a little bit more color behind how the comic came about, since
that’s how most people found out about Chrome. So Eric Antonow, who leads marketing for Chrome,
is a huge Scott McCloud fan. So for those of who don’t know, Scott McCloud
is a legend in the comic world, and he has written some great books in terms
of understanding comics–how comics work and so on.
So as we were talking about how best to describe–Chrome is technically very complex.
There is a lot of work that’s gone inside Chrome.
And we were looking for a good way to describe it to everyone else.
And Eric started working with Scott and so Scott was embedded with the team.
He interviewed a lot of folks and wrote the comic, so–which we hope is a unique way of
describing what Chrome is all about. So I want to spend about 10 minutes talking
about why we built Chrome, what our hopes and aspirations are, give you an overview
of what we are doing here. I’ll also introduce the team, and the goal
is to spend about 30 minutes–we will give you a full intro and demo of the product,
covering both the user experience and all the technology that underlies Chrome.
And we will wrap up and take Q&A. So–and Larry will be joining us as well,
for Q&A. So with that, let’s get started.
So, as you can see from the slide, on the top left, what you are seeing is the homepage
of Amazon.com in 1995. If you look at it, it was very symbolic of
web pages around that time. These were simple html text pages.
People just went to these pages to view content. They were just reading what’s on the page,
nothing more. Let’s fast forward to today.
In 2008, that’s Google Maps with Street View. It’s very symbolic of the kind of applications
you see on the web today–rich, interactive, AJAX applications.
People are doing a lot more online and the web has evolved pretty dramatically.
This is obvious to most people, but what’s less obvious is that the underlying browser
architecture is still very similar to the origin of Netscape Browser.
So the guts of how browsers work is still very similar.
To be very clear, there have been a lot of tremendous advances in the browser space.
A simple addition like XMLHTTP led to many of the AJAX applications we see today.
But–you know–we believe that browsers should evolve a lot more to keep pace with how fast
the web is evolving. You know–I’m sure most of you spend a lot
of time online every day. At Google, we kind of take it to an extreme.
Personally, I do pretty much everything inside a browser.
I run my spreadsheets in a browser; my documents are in a browser; I collaborate in a browser;
all my internal HR applications, my interview systems, HR systems–everything works inside
a browser. So when you spend that much time in a browser,
you start thinking about what are the kinds of things you could do if you rethought the
browser from scratch. And that was the genesis of Google Chrome.
Next slide. So our approach to Google Chrome was obviously
deeply influenced by Google Search. So let’s think about how Google Search works
for a minute. Right, it has a very simple user experience.
For most users–very sophisticated users, like you–use Google, you find it easy and
usable. My mom and dad–who aren’t that internet savvy–greatly
enjoy the user experience as well. So it’s very simple, yet powerful.
The thing that makes it powerful is a very sophisticated core.
So under the hood, we have our infrastructure–ranking algorithms, servers and so on, which make
this experience possible. So when we built Chrome, we tried to emulate
this. So we wanted to build something with a very
simple experience, but something which had a lot of underlying technology, which made
the experience very powerful as well. So that’s how we set out to build Google Chrome.
Next slide. So this is Google Chrome.
It has a very simple, streamlined look, which I will talk about in a minute.
The dictionary definition of “chrome”–like Chrome–it means the borders of a web browser
window and includes the mini bars, tool bars, crow bars, and so on.
It’s kind of an ironic name for our product. Why we called the product Chrome–the motto
in the whole team, was how do we minimize Chrome?
We used to call it Content, not Chrome–that’s what we should focus on.
Our view is that–you know–the browser is just an application–it’s just a tool for
people to interact with the sites and applications they care about.
So a browser should not be self-important. We wanted to make sure people were forgetting
that they were using a browser. So what does that mean?
In Chrome, as you can see on top, is a very streamlined–streamlined chrome of the browser.
So we saved most of the space for the webpage or application you’re spending time on.
But it goes far beyond this. Ben Goodger and Brian Rakowski, who are the
key leaders on the user experience for Chrome, will give a complete demo of what I mean by
the simple user experience. In Chrome, we don’t interrupt the user at
all. There are no dialogues which pop up in front
of you and ask you to do something. So our goal is that the user should enjoy
surfing the web and the browser should stay out of the way.
And Brian and Ben will talk about it in more detail.
In addition, as part of this user experience, we have dramatically simplified search and
navigation, two of the most common activities you do in browsers today.
About 70% of your internet browsing is going back to things you’ve seen before.
So we have spent a lot of time optimizing these two use cases.
Next slide. So what’s under the hood? So let’s talk about
what makes this browser powerful and fast and stable.
There are three main components to Chrome. So the first thing is rendering engine.
We use WebKit–which is an open source rendering engine–which is the same rendering engine
which powers Safari–Apple’s browser–as well. One of the most important principles, as we
started working on this project, was while we wanted to give more choice to users,
we wanted to make sure we didn’t create a headache for developers.
In fact, I was reading some of the comments on the web yesterday.
There were a few comments which were posted out there, “Oh God, one more browser for me
to go and optimize my site on.” We actually wanted to avoid that.
So Chrome uses WebKit, one of the existing rendering engines, so we have not added another
rendering engine to the world. So if you’re a webmaster, and your site works
in Safari, it will work automatically in Chrome. Why did we choose WebKit?
It turns out to be very fast. Darin Fisher–who is our tech lead on the
underlying technology in Chrome–will give you a complete demo of WebKit short while.
So WebKit turns out to be much faster–it’s a very simple code base and it was very familiar
to a lot of Google developers as well. It turns out that our mobile efforts are also–the
browser in Android uses WebKit as well, so it made a lot of sense for us to use WebKit.
The second main component in Chrome–which is a fundamentally different way to think
about the browser–is the multi-process technology. So let me describe this for a minute. What
do we mean by multi-process? Let’s take your desktop as an analogy.
In your desktop, you have many, many applications running.
You don’t expect, when one application crashes on your desktop, for it to take your entire
desktop down. That’s how most browsers work today.
All browsers work as one single process. So in Chrome, we have tried to bring these
good elements into the browser. We think of the browser as a modern platform
for the applications–the web applications that it’s running right now.
So in Chrome, each tab–which could be an application–runs in its own process, in its
own environment. Well what does that mean?
It offers three main benefits. One is it makes the browser much more responsive
and faster. Even if something is happening in one tab,
the other tabs stay responsive. So from a user experience standpoint, the
browser–you can continue doing all the things you are doing in the browser without any slowing
down. So that makes the browser faster. It makes
it more stable. I talked about crashing.
In Chrome, if one tab crashes, you can hit “Reload,” and continue working on–you can
go back to that page. You can actually continue and use the other
pages. Your browser doesn’t go down just because
one application misbehaves. Your browser doesn’t slow down just because
one application is slow. The third thing is it enhances security.
By putting each tab in its own process–you know–we can also sandbox–“sandbox” is a
technical term, but literally, we can take this application–you
can think of it as putting it in a box, shutting all the doors, shutting all the lids
and–you know–we strip away privileges, so the application cannot do harm to your computer.
It cannot read and write on your computer, so it’s a much safer browser as well.
So the multi-process architecture is one of the fundamental underlying advantages of Chrome
and we were able to do it because we were rebuilding a browser from scratch.
This is something difficult to do if you were layering this on an existing browser.
The third main thing in Chrome is V8. V8 is a major technological breakthrough in
Chrome. Lars Bak–who led a team in Aarhus–is one
of the foremost VM experts in the world, and he and his team reared a complete new
And your browser needs to execute that for it to run this application.
So it will make your applications run faster. More importantly, most web developers don’t
So with V8, we hope it will not only run today’s applications faster, but it will enable a
whole new class of applications for tomorrow. Lars will talk about V8 in much more detail.
So that’s the simple user experience and sophisticated core which delivers a very stable, fast and
easy experience for our users. So a few things–we care about making our
products available to everyone. So Chrome–it’s being launched today–it’s
available for PC, Windows Vista and XP. We are working very hard on Mac and Linux
versions. To be very clear, we had one team, and from
this thought, we designed Chrome to be multi-platform. So Chrome was designed with all three platforms
in mind, and you can see–when you use the product–the look and the feel–you know–makes
it work well in all platforms. We decided to launch the Windows beta version
as soon as it was ready, because we wanted to engage with the community outside and get
feedback and improve the product. But we are working very, very hard on Mac
and Linux versions–a lot of us inside use Mac and Linux–
and so there is enough internal pressure to get this ready on those platforms as soon
as possible. Another thing which is very exciting or Chrome
is on day one, we are launching it in over 100 countries and in 43 languages.
So–which is unprecedented for a product of this scope on day one, so we are very excited
by that as well. Next slide.
So the final point I want to make is Chrome is fully open source.
So we are end-to-end–all of Chrome is open source, under a very permissive BSD license.
Our intent here is to help drive the whole web platform forward.
As we built Chrome, we benefitted a lot from existing open source technologies.
I talked about WebKit–we have borrowed components from Firefox as well.
So in that spirit, we wanted to make sure everything we do here is available for others
to use and improve upon. To be very clear–when I say our goal is to
help drive the web platform forward–as the web gets better, that’s a direct strategy
benefit for Google. We live on the web; we build servers on the
web. If the web gets better, more people use the
web and Google benefits. We can write better apps–we have evolved
from a search company to a search, ads and apps company–we can write better applications
on the web. So we care about this a lot.
So with that in mind, Chrome is fully open source and today we are announcing Chromium–
which is our open source project and which will be going live–and the entire code is
available for people to use and contribute to.
So with that, I’m going to introduce Ben and Brian.
Ben Goodger is the Tech Lead on the user experience of Chrome, and Brian is the Lead Product Manager.
So they will give you a demo on the user experience of Chrome.
Thanks. [pause]>>BEN GOODGER: Thanks, Sundar.
So, like Sundar said, my name is Ben Goodger and I’m a Tech Lead on the user interface
for Google Chrome. So when we sat down to design the user interface
for Google Chrome, we–one of the driving goals, as Sundar said–was to build a really
streamlined user experience. And so when we sat down to do this we thought,
“Well, we’ll go back to this original premise for Chrome,”
which is that it is a modern platform for web pages and applications.
And so we thought how this might impact the user interface.
And what we realized is that what we wanted to build was not so much a traditional content
viewer–with the bulky toolbars and buttons and all that kind of stuff–
but more of a streamlined thing–more of a window manager for web pages and apps.
And so we developed a very streamlined user interface, which Brian will bring up right
now. And this is the Chrome window.
And as you can see, one of the first things that we focused on was tab browsing and tabs.
And we felt like tabs should be more than just a feature of a browser, but rather the
primary element of the browser. And so you can see our tab strip was actually
put at the top of the window. So we think of tabs as kind of like title
bars for web pages and apps, and so they’re up here at the top.
And as we built this functionality–and I don’t know about you, but we use tabs an awful
lot–and so we wanted to make this feature scale really well to heavy usage.
And so we’ve done some interesting things with the tab strip to make it work well in
these cases when you have lots of tabs open. And Brian will show you some of those now.>>BRIAN RAKOWSKI: Okay, so let me show you
the tab strip. As you can see, it’s up top and we think that
tabs are the coolest thing that have come to browsers in the last 10 years,
so we spent a lot of time trying to get them right and designing the browser around the
tabs themselves. So let me just show you some of the things
you can do with them. For instance, it’s easy to select tabs. You
can also grab them and drag them. They’re very friendly, they–it’s almost like
you want to drag them, so–you want to go ahead and grab a tab–
I can drag it out too, into a new window, if I want to create a separate window.
You can also drag it back in if you want to consolidate windows, and it’s really easy
to do–it feels really nice–they’re really grabable and dragable–and very friendly as
well. Like Ben said, there’s a lot of really subtle
behaviors that went into designing the tabs, and we tried to design them for people who
use tabs a lot. I’m sure you guys all have lots of tabs open
all the time, and we spent a lot of time thinking about the subtle behaviors that makes this
work really well. So I’ll show you one of those–let’s say you
want to get rid of a couple tabs–so let me close a few and I’ll show you what happens.
So here I’ll click on the “Close” box–you can see the next tab slid over and the “Close”
box is right under my mouse. You can close another one really easily too.
And this is possible because we don’t actually resize the tabs until you move your mouse
away from the tab strip and indicate that you’re done closing tabs.
So I’ll move my mouse away and you can see that they resized to fill the available space.
It makes it really nice for people using a lot of tabs and there’s dozens of little subtle
behaviors in the tabs that make this work really well.>>BEN GOODGER: So like Sundar was saying before,
another area of major focus for us was on the search and navigation.
And like Sundar said, these are the things that people do most in a browser, so it was
important to us to get this right. And so the first product feature that we focused
on was that typical feature of a web browser, which is the address bar at the top of the
window. Now if you look at the browser here, you’ll
see that we have this address bar, but where’s the search box?
Is this really a Google browser without a search box?
Actually, yes. And so what happened when we started off building
this product is we did some research into how people were using their browsers.
And it turned out that it was pretty easy to confuse the two–the search box and the
address box–you know– I myself–I would occasionally type an address
into the search box and a search into the address bar.
And so it was a little bit confusing, because what you had to do as a user was that you
had to decide what it was that you wanted to do before you were going to do it.
So we thought to ourselves, “What if we create just one box that was always the right place
to type no matter what it was that you wanted to type–”
like the search box on Google.com–and it would give you good results?
Results that–you know–for pages that you visit a lot, you would only be maybe one or
two keystrokes away from getting to the pages that you liked.
So what we did was we smashed the two boxes together–the address box and the search box.
So this is the address box, but it’s also the search box and we call in the “Omnibox.”
And to get it work right required a little bit of magic.>>BRIAN RAKOWSKI: Let me show you the Omnibox.
So as you can see here, it–like Ben said, it’s a little bit psychic in terms of–it’s
a little bit of magic–a little bit psychic in terms of predicting where you want to go.
So we used to call it the “psychic Omnibox,” and in fact,
our goal as a team was to only have to type one or two characters into the box before
it gets you to where you want to go, and that’s how it earned its name.
So let me show you–turns out in this browser–I like to go to Amazon a lot–I like to do a
lot of shopping, so I’ll show you the way that works.
I just hit “a” and it knows–it’s learned that I like to go to Amazon–so all I have
to do is hit “a” enter and I’m already navigating to Amazon.com.
It’s really nice and it’s really efficient and it learns very quickly which sites you
like to go to. You’ll have to try it out and see for yourself.
The next thing to point out though, is you don’t always want to go to Amazon every time
I type in “a.” Sometimes I want to do some research, sometimes
I want to do a search. So let’s say I want to do a little–I want
to take a vacation after this launch finally happens.
Let’s see, so I’ll just type “Alaska cruise,” and everything–like Amazon.com just got out
of my way and I just hit enter and now I’m doing a Google search.
It’s really easy to do both searches on Google, and it’s also very easy to navigate to URLs.
But what about all the other search engines on the web?
We know people like to do a lot of specialized searches–they like to search Wikipedia and
Yelp and things like that–so we wanted to make that really easy as well.
So let me show you the way that works. So here I’ll go to Amazon again–“a,” enter–really
quick, and it turns out there’s a search engine on this site and let’s use it.
Let’s see–let’s search for something by Stephen King–
and now at this point, Chrome has noticed that there’s a search engine on this page
that I like to use. I didn’t have to set anything up, it just
noticed. So next time when I decide I want to go to
Amazon, I’ll type “a,” and low and behold, there’s a little tip here that says, “Press
tab to search Amazon.com.” This is my favorite feature of the whole product.
It’s tough to pick, but this is definitely my favorite, because it makes it so efficient
to do what I want to do. So here, let’s say I want to look at–look
for Obama’s latest book–I search, and here I am searching on Amazon.com directly from
the Omnibox. It makes it really efficient and it’s no setup;
and it’s a very easy way to get the answers anywhere on the web.>>BEN GOODGER: So as you can see, the tab
to search feature is indicative of a design philosophy that we took when we were building
the UI for Google Chrome, which is that–rather than force the user
to have to think about what they want to do before they start to take the action,
and then think of what piece of UI that they need to invoke for it–rather people should
just do what they naturally want to do, and then if we can help along the way, we’ll
try and do that. So another area where we applied this approach
was on the new tab page–what you get when you open a new tab.
And basically, what we noticed with a lot of browsers was that this page is blank, and
you’re trying to go somewhere, so it seemed like kind of an untapped resource.
When you open the new tab, you can either type an address into the address box, or you
can pick a bookmark or something like that. So we began to think of what we could offer
in this place. Maybe we could offer bookmarks, but–you know–a
lot of people like bookmarks, but also bookmarks can be–for some people–a little bit of a
pain to maintain over time, and unlike the Omnibox, bookmarks aren’t automatic–they
don’t tailor themselves to suit your browsing habits.
Now if you had bookmarks in your existing browser, they’ll be imported into Google Chrome,
but we thought that we might be able to do a little bit better in what we show in this
new tab page, and so that’s what we’ve done.>>BRIAN RAKOWSKI: So let me show you the new
tab page. I’ll click right here to create a new tab
and you can see what we’ve done. This page is my new tab page.
It shows all the sites that I like to go to. Here are the nine sites that I visit most
often and this was, again, configured automatically, I didn’t have to do any setup of my own; it
just works. There’s also the search engines that I use
most often, bookmarks that I’ve created recently, and if I’ve closed a tab recently–let me
do that–it shows up right here, so I can easily get back to it if I accidentally close
it or I decide I want to do it again. We also have a little area for bookmarks here
that you can manually configure and you can add things here.
Having it only show up in the new tab page is a great way to save space if you don’t
want to see it on every page. If you do want to see it on every page, it’s
easy to dock to the top of your window–I’ll do that–and you see it docks itself there,
and now it’s at the top of every page–more like a traditional bookmarks toolbar–and
it’s easy to toggle on and off and it’s kind of fun to toggle on and off too,
so I do that sometimes when I’m bored. [everyone laughs]>>BEN GOODGER: That’s really cool.
In fact, this is one of my favorite–[laughing]–this is one of my favorite features because the
page–you know–it does become yours. It is the stuff that you do and so, actually
our testing of this was pretty successful and so we’ve decided to make this the default
homepage in Google Chrome. Of course, if you have a homepage that you
really like, we import that as well and it’s really easy for you to choose to use that.
Also if you have a particular set of tabs that you like to start out with,
you can choose those, or you can choose to start with the tabs that you were using last
time you used the browser. So when we were looking at all of these features
that we had built that were based on your browsing history and stuff like that, we realized
there was a little bit of a problem, and that was basically sometimes people–you
know–visit sites that maybe they’re not comfortable sharing with other people who might use the
same computer. And if you’ve been to some site and then it
turns out–basically you don’t want someone else to come along and start typing and figure
out that you’ve been there. So what happens in other browsers, typically,
is that people will go in after visiting these sites and they’ll clear out their history.
But in Google Chrome, the consequences are more dramatic because the contents of this
page will disappear, and all of the quick shortcuts that you have
in your Omnibox will also disappear and then you’ll have to start again from scratch.
So we wanted to come up with a couple of solutions to this problem,
and the first one was to create a new kind of window, and this kind of window is called
an “incognito window.” And any browsing that you do in this window
is not stored on your computer.>>BRIAN RAKOWSKI: Let me show you incognito.
So here I’ll create an incognito window. You can see that it looks a little bit different
than the other window–it has a little detective in the corner to help you remember that you’re
in a special mode. And let’s do an example of something you might
be doing incognito–I don’t know what you guys do,
but maybe I want to do a little bit [audience laughs] of research for a friend, of course,
who has a disorder. [audience laughs] So I’ll do a little research, looking around
trying to find a cure and okay–this looks like I have what I need now,
and just to prove that nothing is remaining on your computer, let me show you the history
view– you can see the searches that I did for Obama
and Stephen King on Amazon.com, but none of the stuff from the toe fungus search is here.
None of the cookies are remaining–none of the cookies remain in my window–in my browser,
none of the cache information–none of that stuff is still on my computer.
To be really clear, incognito mode is meant to keep information off your computer when
you’re browsing sites that you don’t want to appear in your browser history.>>BEN GOODGER: So as you can see, opening
an incognito window is really easy. All of your existing windows and tabs stay
open. It’s a nice–it’s not an experience that forces
you to switch from one thing to the other–to the exclusion of everything else.
So you can just pop one open and browse for some stuff, and then close it, and then it’s
like it never happened on your computer. So another design theme for us building the
user interface for Google Chrome, was to try and create an invisible browser–
a browser that didn’t show annoying popup dialogue boxes that you–asking you to click
“Ok,” “Cancel,” and stuff like that. And so one area of the product where this
focused our design was the experience you get when you download files.>>BRIAN RAKOWSKI: So here I’ll go–using my
bookmarks toolbar–I’ll go to a site where I like to download some files.
And we spent a lot of time trying to make downloads easy.
I was really excited about the opportunity to try to make the download experience work
much better. So here’s a site with a lot of downloads,
and our philosophy was you shouldn’t have to do a lot of stuff–you shouldn’t have to
manage a lot of things to make downloads work– it should just–you should just be able to
find something on the web and make it yours. So here–let me click a few of these and you
can see what happens. They come down into this little bar at the
bottom of the page, and you can then interact with them just as if–just exactly what you
want to do– you don’t have to worry about where they were
downloaded to, you don’t have to worry about clicking “Ok” on a dialogue,
you don’t have to worry about where, on your file system, they went.
You can drag them right off of here onto your desktop if you want; you can drag them into
folders–let me do that with this one. And if you want you can just click on them
to open them.>>BEN GOODGER: And so a final area of focus
for us in building the user interface was on what kind of UI we should provide for these
web pages that act more like applications. And sometimes these are the pages that you
can keep open all day long because they’re relevant to you throughout your day.
These are things like email and calendar and stuff like that.
And so we went back and we took a look at the browser user interface, and we thought
what we could do for that–for those kind of applications.
And what we realized pretty quickly was that some of this user interface just wasn’t that
relevant for some of these applications– the “Back” and “Forward” button, “Reload”,
the Omnibox, stuff like that. You didn’t use them that much because you
kept them around and you didn’t navigate away from those pages to other pages as much, at
least for some users. And also, some of this UI could occasionally
be a little bit dangerous–maybe you’re in the middle of typing something and a box in
one of these applications, and if you click “Reload” accidentally or
navigate somewhere else accidentally, then all of that is gone.
So what we realized was that some of these applications–what they really want to do,
is they want to break free of the browser window.
And so we created a new kind of window to hold them.>>BRIAN RAKOWSKI: Here let me navigate to
one of these apps that I like to keep open all the time, and I think of as a real app.
And here’s Gmail, and when we were thinking about this–like Ben said–they want to break
free, and I think of this as our Pinocchio feature–because
Pinocchio really wanted to be a real boy–I just want this to be a real app–I want it
to feel like a real app. So we have this feature here with “Create
application shortcuts–” let me choose that– and you get a dialogue that lets you choose
where you’d like to create these shortcuts. I’ll create one on the desktop and you can
see what happens–move this out of the way–here I have a desktop shortcut and I could launch
it just like a real app. And when I launch it, I get this app view
window which doesn’t contain all the extra browser machinery that gets in the way,
and can sometimes be dangerous in the context of applications.
You also get a little thingy in your task bar and you get an entry in your Alt-Tab menu,
so it’s easy to switch between applications, just like you’re using real desktop apps.
It’s one of my favorite features also.>>BEN GOODGER: But we didn’t just stop and
user interface. Improving the capabilities of web applications
goes right to the core of Google Chrome. And to tell you some more about that now,
I’ll turn it over to Darin.>>DARIN FISHER: Thanks, Ben.
So my name is Darin Fisher. I’m another [sound of microphone bumping;
unintelligible] with Google Chrome and I’m here to talk to you a little bit about what’s
under the hood. So given the opportunity to build a better
browser, we took a hard look at what we could do to improve upon some of the core fundamentals
of web browsers. We were interested in how we could improve
upon speed, stability and security. And we are very interested in the use case
of users who leave their browsers running for a long time.
We noticed that–you know–I know from my own experience that I tend to have a lot of
different tasks going on at once in the browser. I might be in the middle of composing an email
and then I’m going off to do a search because I need to get some information for that email–
maybe a calendar alert goes off and that takes my attention away to what I just doing,
and suddenly I’ve just got a lot of different things going on in parallel.
And it’s really unfortunate when, in the process of going off into some other tab and going
to some web page that you haven’t been to in a while,
that suddenly, somehow a browser bug–a rendering engine bug–gets tickled and it’s really unfortunate
if that results in you losing your whole browser– or the browser locks up, goes out to lunch,
whatever–it’s very unfortunate to have to Force Quit the browser at that point,
because you’ve lost all this work that you had in progress.
So it seemed obvious to us that it sure would be nice if the browser were subdivided–could
be subdivided into multiple processes. As Sundar said before, when you use desktop
applications and one of the desktop applications dies, you don’t expect it to affect your other
desktop applications; and the same should be true of web pages and
web applications. So that’s what we did, we built this multi-process
rendering engine–or multi-process browser architecture–that puts the rendering engine
down into sub child processes, and this has many benefits.
The obvious one–which is one I’ve already been talking about–is stability.
You know–clearly if one of the tabs dies, you don’t lose the other tabs and you don’t
lose the browser itself. Performance. Well, because these tabs can
now execute in parallel, it means that you can get some very nice performance properties.
For free, you get the fact that if one tab is busy, you can quickly, effortlessly switch
to a different tab and do work. There’s no delay, there’s no hiccup as a result
of the fact that the browser’s–one rendering engine is busy servicing one tab.
This is very nice for performance, especially if you happen to have a newer computer with
a dual-core CPU. Security. There’s very–it turns out that
there are some very nice security benefits from this architecture.
And security is a very complex topic–there’s many aspects to it.
But what we were able to do with the multi-process architecture is we recognize that–you know–to
render web pages doesn’t require a lot of privileges.
Normally processes on the desktop run with all the privileges of the normal user.
They have the ability to mess with your files, to mess with your registry and so on.
But to render web pages you don’t need any of those privileges–you don’t need any of
those capabilities. So we said the rendering engine process–the
process that’s running the rendering engine–just take away all of its privileges.
Limit it to the point where all it can do is talk to the browser.
And this has very nice security properties. It gives you an extra level of protection.
We call this technology “the sandbox.” Now the way I liken–like to think about it
is for a bad guy to get malware onto your computer, ordinarily he’s just have to find
a bug in your rendering engine. And once he does that, he has access to your
computer. But not in Google Chrome.
In Google Chrome, he also has to find a way out of the sandbox.
So he has to first find a bug in the rendering engine and then find a bug in the sandbox.
And so that, we believe, adds an extra level of security, which is very nice.
Okay, so now I’d like to do a little show-and-tell and have Brian bring up Chrome’s Task Manager.
So what you can see here is some user interface that looks a little like Windows Task Manager,
and what you’re seeing here is a list of all the processes in Google Chrome.
I really love this feature because as a power user, it gives me the ability to kind of see
what’s going on. What do I mean by that?
Well, there’s columns here for memory, CPU and network usage.
So for instance, you can see that maybe some process–some tab is actually consuming a
lot of CPU–that might be really interesting to a power user.
And the rows here at the top, you can see the browser process.
Below that, in this case, there’s five different tab processes.
This window apparently has four tabs, but there’s another tab process used for Gmail,
which is currently minimized. And finally there’s even a process for Shockwave
Flash. That’s right; we actually put plugins out
of process. We found that we could apply the same principles
that give us separation between tabs in the browser, to tabs and plugins.
These are the traditional browser plugins like Flash, QuickTime, Java and so on.
We actually found that we could–we found that it was very nice if we could have these
things out in their own processes so that– suppose you visit a web page where an advertisement
is served using a plugin. Well, and imagine somehow that plugin misbehaves
or encounters a bug. Well, all you would lose is the plugin–all
you would lose that little bit of UI that was actually dealing with that, and you wouldn’t
lose the actual activity you were doing. So this sort of subdividing of processes is
very nice and applied to plugins as well. So now Brian is going to demonstrate the–an
example of a tab that’s misbehaving and then he’s going to show you an example of a plugin
that’s misbehaving.>>BRIAN RAKOWSKI: Okay, so here you can see
we have the Task Manager up. We also have Chrome running here.
And let me simulate–let me bring up the bookmarks toolbar, so I can use it to simulate a hang.
Sometimes your browser just becomes unresponsive due to something that’s going on and it gets
stuck–it gets frozen–you can’t do what you want to do.
So we have a way to simulate that, and I’ve just clicked this bookmark, and now I can’t
actually interact with this page because it’s stuck.
I can’t click on the links, I’m trying to click, I’m trying to scroll, I can’t do anything.
But the cool thing about Chrome in this multi-process architecture is now I can still switch tabs–I
can still interact with all the other pages, I haven’t lost anything.
Instead of my entire browser being stuck, now just this one tab is stuck.
And because the browser process is pulled out separately, like Darin said, I can still
close this tab if I want to. I’m not going to do that though, I’m going
to use the Task Manager to do it, just so you can see how it looks if you were to encounter
a hang of its own. So let me see which one–Google News looks
like it’s stuck. You can see the CPU is all the way up because
I have a dual-core machine; one of them is completely saturated.
I’ll end the process and here we have the little sad tab. [audience laughs]
He’s upset because something bad happened, but I should also say–just like before–I
can still interact with the rest of the browser, nothing is broken.
I can close it if I want to, but it’s also really easy to recover.
I just hit “Refresh” and I’m back where I was.
And notice that even the scroll position is preserved.
I was scrolled down before, we remembered that and now it’s back to exactly where you
were before. And the next thing Darin talked about was
plugins. Plugins are in their own process.
So let me go to a site that uses plugins. We like to use YouTube a lot, so let me pick
a video here that looks interesting. How about this one?
So you can see the thingy’s playing. If you look here, you can see Shockwave Flash
is using a bunch of resources–stuff is happening. Now here, let me try to simulate a crash of
the plugin process. I’ll use end process here in the Task Manager,
and here you get a little sad plugin, just like the sad tab–
sort of cute, we needed something to make ourselves feel better when we encountered
a crash. So here with have this–and again, you can
interact with the rest of the page. You can scroll down–nothing is broken except
for that–you can switch these tabs here; you can interact with everything here on the
page. And recovery, again, is really easy.
All I have to do is hit “Refresh,” and refresh–it will reload the plugin and start playing it
all again. So it’s very easy to get back to where you
were, and it’s a really nice way to minimize the impact of a crash.>>DARIN FISHER: Thanks, Brian.
So you can see it’s–you can see the stability properties for yourself.
And so now we want to turn your attention to another topic–so we’re very interested
in performance when it comes to Google Chrome, and as I said, the multi-process architecture
gives nice performance–has nice performance properties if you have a–
you know–because of parallelism. But we were also interested in raw performance,
and raw performance is part of what–a big part of what influenced our decision when
it came to the rendering– choice of rendering engine.
Sundar mentioned before that we’re using WebKit as our rendering engine.
We liked WebKit because it’s fast. We also liked it because it’s open source
and as Sundar said, we really didn’t want to have to make web developers deal with yet
another rendering engine. And so don’t want you to just take my word
for it when I say it’s fast, I want to actually demonstrate that.
So what Brian’s going to do now is run a little–a small little demo of loading pages.
He’s going to first load it in Internet Explorer, and this is a very simple demo that’s loading
static content off of the local file system, so it’s taking IO–network IO–out of the
picture. So you can just see how fast the rendering
engine is. Here we see about–looks like 220 milliseconds,
on average, per page for this test. And we’re going to repeat this test now in
So Brian’s going to resize the windows so they’re the same size.
[pause] So I think that’s a bit faster.
And so hopefully you can see why we really were impressed with WebKit’s performance.
And it’s very fast at loading static content. It makes it so that our job is how fast can
we feed data to WebKit? Then we know these pages will appear quickly
on the screen and will give us very nice performance properties.
Now this is the test of static content, and of course the web is very dynamic these days.
content faster–is Lars Bak. Thank you.
[pause]>>LARS BAK: [clears throat] Thank you, Darin.
So, I’m Lars Bak. I’m a V8 Tech Lead, and I’m all the way from
Aarhus, Denmark to present V8. And we like fast performance.
And we talked about the WebKit that adds something to it, but we decided we want to do more.
We wanted to design a engine that would work for the future web applications on the web.
applications, okay? So we decided to do one that’s a brand new
used to customize buttons and simple things–it was only a few lines.
But already today, we have applications like Gmail,
in order to navigate around in Gmail. And I guarantee you, this trend will continue.
So we need something that can really take care of the future web applications.
What else should I say? I should say that I’ve been doing work with
machines for 20 years, and this is one of the most exciting time times I’ve had so far.
very dynamic, so when you create new objects, they look
like they are very independent features and there’s no sharing between them,
and the underlying system cannot take advantage of it.
Well, we came up with an idea that could change all that.
So we found a way to introduce something called “hidden classes,”
and what it does–it actually monitors the program as you run it and creates common structures
of updates inside the working machine. To a user, it’s actually the same.
We preserved the same semantics as the other virtual machines, but when we have this shared
structure, we can start applying optimization techniques
that are well known in other classes of virtual machines–and I think more like Java and SmallTalk–
There are three design ideas in our engine that makes it run really fast, and you need
the program, they have to look at, “Oh, what should I do now,” and so on.
That’s fairly slow, everybody knows that. So we did a native compiler, so we take the
source code, we get into the browser and give it a native code so we can utilize the hardware
of the machine you’re running on. That’s step one.
Step two is we wanted to use these classes we tracked when running the program and use
inside the native code. And what we do is we apply a technique called
inline caching, and that has to do with dynamic patching of native code on the fly–you all
understand this, of course. [audience laughs]
is extremely fast, and also doing function calls.
And when you have these two things being really fast,
it gives the web application developer the option to add more libraries to the browser
when running web applications right. You can factor in code more, you can include
more code into the browser and it really opens up for the sort of creativity of the web application
developer. That is really what we are getting at.
The third thing we added was a very efficient memory management system, and that gives you
fast object allocation and it gives you scalability. So VM–the VM we have here, V8–has been designed
to be very scalable. You can add tons of code inside the browser
and when you are running, you can allocate a lot of objects and you will not see the
system slow down, okay? So that’s part of the design system–or design
sort of focus of our VM. So I think we should try to see how fast it
is. What do you think, Brian?>>BRIAN RAKOWSKI: That’s a good idea.>>LARS BAK: So we have tried–we created a
small test that will demonstrate the speed of V8.
But first we will take an existing browser and here we will take Internet Explorer, okay?
And as you can see you have this icon moving slowly clockwise, and for each tick, it will
actually execute a benchmark. And what you see in the middle is a number
that says the estimated roundtrips per hour. So that’s not very exciting and I’m getting
bored already. [audience laughs] So let’s try V8–let’s hope it’s faster!
[pause] Oops, not yet.
It is somewhat faster, so I can see. [audience laughs]
Now when I went to school–this is actually a big factor–this is a big factor.
So I hope you’re impressed even though it was just a simple number. [audience laughter]
stuff from the net is important, but at least– what we have done with V8–we have created
Our system is, of course, open source, and the main purpose of V8 is to increase the
So the other browser windows–they can take this and include it in their system, or they
can use our ideas to figure out how to do an even better system.
We like competition. And that pretty much conclude our sys–oh,
one thing I should say as well is that when you get access to a code at google.com/p/v8,
you can find the source code there, but what you can also find is a comprehensive
benchmark suite and you can try out different browsers to see how fast they are.
against other browsers. So please go and try it out.
Thank you. [pause]>>SUNDAR PICHAI: Thanks, Lars.
Listening to Lars speak is like attending a computer science lecture, so I hope you
enjoyed that. [background noise]
So a couple points, I want to reiterate that Chrome is fully open source.
Everything you saw, including V8, and the front-end and everything will be available
today, as Chromium and we are very excited by it.
I want to stress about one more thing. While we demonstrated Chrome with Google Search,
Chrome has no tie-ins to major Google services. In fact, when you install Google Chrome, if
you are a user who was using IE and had Live Search or Yahoo as your default search, we
just migrate that preference over. So Chrome is configured to be used with any
search provider or any homepage, and so on. So that’s very important, even though we demo’d
it with Google Search; we want to preserve user choice in these things.
So looking back, it’s been over two years of work.
I remember when we started working on the project, Marissa, who is here, challenged
us to write a press release on day one. She said, “Why won’t you think about–“you
know–“how do you want to talk about this to the world?”
We should build a meaty browser, we should build something very different shaded.
And so we actually–Brian, myself and a few others wrote a press release on day one when
we started working on this, and it’s very nice to see how far we have come.
I want to thank a huge team, here in Mountain View, in Kirkland and in Aarhus, who have
contributed many, many hours to this project. They are all watching it on webcast, so I
want to say thanks to everyone. And finally, Larry’s here, and Larry was an
early supporter of the project. He stopped by many times to the team buildings
and spent time with the team members, and he’s a power user of the product, so I want
him to share his thoughts on Chrome.>>LARRY PAGE: Well thank you.
I really want to thank the amazing team here, and I want to thank all of you who are here
in the room and on the webcast, for participating with us on short notice.
I want to just say a few things I thought the team hadn’t said.
I wanted them to be out front, because they’re again–they’re such an amazing team, they’ve
worked so hard on this, and I think you have seen that in some of
the details they showed. I’ve been using Chrome now for about–quite
a while, actually–and I’ve really enjoyed using it.
I’ve used it as my primary browser, and I’ve actually used it–to the detriment of the
team–on a really slow, old computer on purpose. It’s really forced them to make it fast without
a lot of memory, and on slower computers and so on.
And I think that’s one of actually the main issues with the web today, is you actually–if
you look at what you’re doing on the web– you know–you’re actually looking at a blank
screen waiting for something pretty often. And speed–you know–they didn’t go into a
lot of detail on speed, although we feel it’s very, very fast.
But there’s actually–it’s a hard thing to measure.
It depends how much memory you have, it depends what web pages you’re on, it depends on a
number of different things. I think the team has done an amazing job of
dealing with all those issues–and they’re smiling–
Because they haven’t heard me say that, because I’m always very hard on them on that.
They’ve really worked hard on that, and I think if you install it and use it, you’ll
really feel that, even on–you know–maybe older computers,
not a brand new computer, whatever. The other thing I did want to say, Sundar
just reiterated the open source aspect of Chrome,
but we really–as Computer Scientists–we want to live in a world where–you know–our
platforms are really advancing; where they can be improved, where people can
add new functionality, where the pace of change and improvement is really rapid.
We don’t want to live in a world where all that’s locked up and kept secret and nobody
can improve it. And the open source models really allow people
to do that–you know–allows any developer in the world anywhere–you know–who’s connected
to the internet– they can make an improvement to an open source
project, like Chrome, and that can really make the world a lot better.
It also means that other projects like Mozilla, and so on, can take some of the advancements
we’ve made and the hard work that’s been done on things like V8,
and they can actually choose to incorporate those things pretty easily, potentially.
And so I think that we’re entering kind of a new era where some of the advancement can
be made much more quickly than it was in the past,
and–you know–this technology can be used for learning, for development and so on, in
a way that hasn’t happened before, and I’m really proud to be part of Google
and to be behind that. I also just wanted to say–you know–we–I
just wanted to mention how we decided to release this,
because–you know–it’s challenging to make a browser, obviously, and we actually–the
criteria we used is that we have a ton of Googlers using it who are happy.
And that’s actually the best way that we could test it and really know that it’s a great
project, and that’s what’s happened. We had a ton of people using it internally,
all the time; we’ve been measuring that, and they’ve been happy and continuing to use
it and enjoy it like I have. And so that’s why we are here today and why